Describing Jesus Emmanuel, the evangelist Luke 16:9-15 presents him, I would say, in successive steps, both as Savior and as ideologue: that is The One who is capable of programming the new humanity, which is reborn free from the original sin.

What causes the programming action, apart from the founding event of the Death on the Cross and therefore of the Resurrection, if not the re-allocation to the human being of the task that was entrusted to Father Adam, the common grandfather who existed millions of years ago: to give a name to things.

An enormous task, give a name to things means descending into the depths of those things, identifying the specific identity bearer of significant meaning, full of concrete tensions and impulses, as well as genetically unique and unrepeatable, and which precisely for this reason are to be contextualized with the whole to which they must and may relate to, by interacting.

Where the whole in context is the nature entirely entrusted ab origine to a reading key that cannot be interpretative, but only applicative or analogical (the method of Qyias).

In fact, all the laws of nature: day and night, action and rest, tidal flow, matter/antimatter, if interpretable, would be modifiable, but Adam‘s task, namely the quest, whatever it may be,relates only to the requirement of understanding and transposition of the inherent message. It does not relate to the requirement of knowledge which could lead to the domination capable of modification that cannot be implemented, as the creative tension, the one of the Holy, Holy, Holy, of the One who is, who has been and who will be, was established and determined by laws that are unchangeable, as consubstantial to God.

One may possess reading keys, but only analogical ones. The tree of knowledge is not edible, because the work of naming things, initiated but never completed, despite the animistic curiosities of grandmother Eve, who – let us remember it once and for all – was black, could not overcome the constraint of the mission incardinated in Adam.

Of course, grandmother Eve got tired of seeing father Adam always engaged in his primary search. First, the search of himself, because if one wants to identify the other from oneself, one must first know oneself, by defining one’s own limits and therefore by accepting them, and with those glasses give a name to things.

Adam’s quest and his way of contextualising himself in the environment identified hismissionand therefore it was the assumption that realized his joy, the happiness described by Aristotle.

The tension becomes constantly new, apart from us, because God himself is a perpetual existence and, equally, transformation.

Eve felt herself marginal in this context, ignoring the fact that marginal does not mean minimal. Indeed, it means to be absolutely equal to all the other essences, and even more, to be the last one, which is also the most important. Her task should have been the physical joy – multiplier, amplifier, reproductive – a key orgonic element that impregnates with itself the new born who comes and, at the same time, rests form the difficult task of the search.

She is the engine that allows the “noumenon” to become a “phenomenon”. The tree of knowledge tempted for her becomes the means to realize the synthesis and thus to free her from the condition of creator of the new and therefore from the same function of the search that never succeeds in coming to an end. It is Hades who takes hold of Persephone, while Demeter-Gilgamesh, from the beginning dedicated to his own search, thus falling straight into the trap of the one who feels himself God, the devil, but who cannot be God because he cannot change his attitude and his own law.

A Woman: Mary, Miriam, or the Mother of Mithra, or Isis, Full of Grace, pre-existent to the being, essence of the love or Holy Spirit, is temporalized in order to give birth to the new Adam. The Man/God who liberates all those who have preceded him in seeking to give a name to things, all the sons of Ulysses: “You were not born to live like brutes, but to follow virtue and knowledge”.

To this, Omar Khayyam responds: “My house is on this side and on the other side of the river”.

When the season of the Advent came, coincidentally the “law” on Earth was fulfilled with the birth of the Roman principality that is based on the principle of “romanitas”, which is the principle of Lux=lex seasoned, a priori existent, applicable to the practical case by analogy from general to specific.

Rome, however, practical and rich in businesses, free from racial prejudices, extends the rules of its law to the entire universe, through the action of his “Praetor Peregrinus”, empowered to settle the issues related to the negotiations between the stranger who, in this respect, is no longer a barbarian, and Cives, who was non-barbaric to such an extent that, albeit for tax and revenue reasons (but the reasons are the ones identifying the duties of the citizen faced to the opportunities that citizenship offers – theatre, roads, streets, baths, drinking water, latrines and urinals, education and health), he was made citizen under Caracalla, who was belonging, not surprisingly, to a royal family of Libyan origin.

Rome was concrete since its origins, when a bunch of thieves, although of “divine” and Trojan origin (I here refer to the twins of Rhea Silvia: Romulus and Remus), bearers of “Pietas”, at least towards the ancestors (in the 10 commandments the honouring of the mother and father), propose to their new founder Eves to give birth to the new Quirites.

A trace of this still exists nowadays in Antwerp, where the main monument is the one dedicated to the Roman legionnaire who defeated the brute, the giant.

The poor legionnaire or senator or knight who had conquered a territory, apart from the colony, was saying to his lady companion after the three days in which he had the right to rape: “will you marry me according to your laws, to your traditions”, thus making her the new matron. That matron,Cornelia, who, speaking of jewellery, was presenting her sons: the two Gracchi brothers, fathers of the tribunate and therefore the Fathers of the plebs’ party.

Certainly, it is easy to understand how such a statement could be made by a daughter of the Scipios, sister of the Scipios, from whose convivium was born the model of a future empire, in which a Thracian, an African or a Syrian, or a Hispanic or an Illyrian could be emperors and from which, starting with Caligula, the conflicts could be definitely put out by marriage with the Persians and, through them, with the Chinese. And the gardens of the Scipios, still exist.

But the scattered notes that accompany the words of Luke are combined with the practice of the everyday life: first of all, the human being who lives in an organized context, with reference points that are certain, is trained with the saying: “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s”, which also includes the obligation to submit to the census, a fiscal instrument itself. Respecting the census means respecting the law, to which we are all submitted. And thus, this allows a master carpenter, the good Joseph, to receive the gifts of the shepherds and of the wise men, who “finance” him in order to protect Jesus in Egypt and to make it possible for Jesus to grow in beauty and wisdom, not just as a good ebony worker, but also as a twelve year old who was asking questions to the Masters of the Temple. Egypt, the headquarters of the human knowledge (The Library of Alexandria) and, in its time, of the first bank that managed raw materials in the Western world: the storage receipts for grain and cereals given by the priests of the temples to the depositing peasants.

Jesus, who, travelling the roads of the world, meets the gaze of Zacchaeus, the man who, in order to see him without disturbing him, had climbed the sycamore tree. He, a Roman tax collector, is invited to run home in order to then receive Jesus together with all his followers: the Disciples.

It was a wealthy house, considering that later Zacchaeus was to pay back four times as much to anyone who he had defrauded, without thus becoming poor, but on the contrary, becoming richer in the light of a new intra-community perspective. The biblical parable of Lazarus and the rich man Dives is not relevant because of the conspicuous waste of Dives, but for his lack of sharing.

The French Revolution is against the self-referenciality of the three estates in relation to the fourth estate, the lack of the mutual growth principle. The absence of common growth is the fundamental reason of the uprising against Charles I, who, in Parliament, once exhausted the sums available in the real fiscal system, has imposed taxes and fees for his mere pleasure: the war against the French relatives, which, moreover, was impoverishing the English merchants’ traffic. Thus, when Charles II agrees not to impose taxes, but to reign without governing, that is not to impose taxes without the consent of the Parliament or, moreover, in the absence of a proposal made by the Parliament, the crown is returned to him at once.

Jesus, son of David, does not grow up in poverty, but in a contained dignified poverty. He is educated in the fatigue of manual work because this is what distinguishes the man from the brute beast, but he is certainly cultivated in his capacity as a human being, as well as the son of God, in the sciences of man and nature, in their symmetry and the correlative asymmetry.

The Wise men gave to Joseph gold, frankincense and myrrh. It is possible that Joseph had recovered from the Egyptians those artefacts bearers of human knowledge which Jesus, as a human being, as well as God, had to study, as normally occurs in the education of all the children of the people of Israel. Jesus, son of David, sits as an equal among all the wise men and for this reason he does not succeed in making himself understood in his hometown and lives, during his preaching, surrounded by his disciples, whom he sends to the house of the one who would have prepared the Passover.

Mary, invited to the wedding at Cana, does not enter a house of poor people, as other biblical excerpts tell us that in order to go to a wedding one must be well dressed and perfumed. Those who welcome Mary, Jesus and the disciples are not poor, since they have servants and butlers, they have many guests and not the oil, but the wine runs out. The landlord cannot lose face and therefore his dignity, including the social one, besides his personal dignity (one may live in poverty, but by keeping one’s head up, in dignified poverty).

The Mother, like all mothers, anticipates with her own dignified humility the underlying meaning of the looks exchanged between the Magister cerimoniae and the hosts and, without asking questions, demands for the intervention of the living God, the son who helpfully intervenes and resolves the issue. He does not have money, he does not need it, but the disciples have a treasurer, Judas, who takes care of the small expenses, who would have probably wanted to use those money to equip an army and to re-establish the great Israel and who will finally sell the Master who rides the best and most versatile of animals: the donkey.

But the common money is for the poor and in the Acts of the Apostles, in the part about the first communities, it is stressed that the available resources were distributed according to the needs of the individuals among all the members of those communities.

The Last Supper is part of the convivium scipionis, Jesus heals the daughter of the centurion and the head of the Roman maniple is the one who recognizes him on the throne, redeemer of the Cross: Son of God.

The arms crossed and raised embrace the whole world, freeing it. In the house of the other Lazarus, now rotting, he is expected and it is not a house of the poor that of Mary and Martha, which indulges however to maintain the family’s dignity. But in Him dominates the piety of being together. Never deprive someone of hope is his teaching. Hence the advice to the wise young man who respects more than 600 provisions of the Jewish law:well, sell everything you have, give it to the poor and then follow me, and the young man leaves very troubled. He does not understand that the invitation contains the message, charity or Zakat are not sufficient, there must be effective presence, assistance and technical assistance meant to restore hope; the community is the one that has to grow with the individual and not only the individual with all his complexities. He is not yet able to know that the convivial dignity will never be poor. Today Yunus, by means of microcredit, restores to the pariah, otherwise hopeless, the dignity of their work, which later becomes social inclusion in the “social business”.

On the scale of values, next to the 4 basic needs, consisting of food, clothing, shelter and transportation, there are the specific needs of the human being: work and then love. The key issue of work is first addressed in the Western world by Diocletian, the Illyrian emperor. He does not collect the sceptre from the hands of an evolution of a form of state or of a form of government any more, but rather from the consideration that the external pressure of an immense demographic mass was growing at the borders, pushed forward from the Far East, from the other Middle Kingdom, the Chinese one, that was also confronted to an identity and economic crisis. The Chinese empire knows well that, during centuries of trade between Persia and the Roman world, enormous wealth has been accumulated, which has led to new forms of state and new forms of governance able to ensure, from Augustusto Caracalla, for the citizens and for the free men belonging to the federated peoples, a very high quality of life, although assured by means of the enslavement of the nature and of a part of the humanity itself through the maintenance of slavery.

But wars, plagues, natural devastations like the explosion of the Vesuvius that destroyed Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae, have drastically reduced the demographic numbers of the empire, from about 60 million inhabitants to a little less than 20 million inhabitants. The fields were abandoned. The strength of Rome, ideologically consisting of peasants, large scale farmers, ranchers, artisans and builders, runs out around the urban centres, the emptiness haunting the surrounding area. The urban control had failed and ever more subjects are to be recruited in order to maintain the structure of the legions, including from friendly and federated peoples and then from the peoples that press at the borders, some of them since forever fascinated by Rome – the Germans, backbone of the imperial guard – and then from those coming from far away, simple invaders, transformed in defenders because they had conquered for themselves a vital and reproductive space rich of things and they had something to lose from the arrival of new people from the Far East – _ftn1.

In the time of Diocletian, not only the demographic collapse had reached its peak, but also the social elevator, represented by the category of knights, farmers and merchants of all, first slaves, then free men, then trustees, then knights and, where appropriate, tax collectors, was no longer working.

Speaking from the Marxist point of view, the issue was no longer the control of the means of production or of the related ownership, highly present during the land era, but to provide, by any means and in any way, resources for the aerarium and for the imperial treasury, coming from any source, also considering the fact that the actors of the first estate, the large scale landowners “upper-class” of the imperial society, were essentially exempted from the payment of taxes, even though these were precisely the subjects in favour of whom the state had to bear the extra costs in order to ensure their safety.

Diocletian thus crystallizes the imperial society, according to a model program that is beginning to revive nowadays.

Each person is assigned to a category or a trade from which, even for the generations to come, will no longer be able to escape or to free himself and each member of the corporation or congregation, according to the census, must ensure, as a category, a certain annual revenue to the two treasuries, regardless of the actual income achieved during the economic exercise in the given period of time. Under the Emperor Justinian the law also crystallizes, with his trendy compilation for all the times to come. Due to the enormous public works that he was called to achieve and to the effect of the also useless anti-historical Gothic war, the levy on income that was not coming from the latifundia gets to 90%, thus causing the loss of quality of the costs benefits ratio, which within an estate is ensured for the citizens in terms of benefits > costs, as regularly occurs in the largest democracy of the world, the United Kingdom, the unique direct heir of the pre-Justinian Roman legal tradition.

The combined effect of the policies of Diocletian and Justinian leads to the fact that the same imperial representatives in the Middle East as in North Africa hurried to call the Arab friends of the peninsula, already unified by the Prophet Muhammad, to replace them at the imperial power,receiving in exchange a full financial liberalization, thereby decreasing the income tax levy from 90% to 10% for the converted and to 20% for the faithful however protected by the book, notwithstanding the total exemption for those who were serving in the military, as well as transferring to them the form of the state and of the government they were lacking and equipping the Caliphate, although with a legal “nomen” different from the appellative of the XIIIth apostle, that is of mediator with the great and merciful God, unifying in Umma (to be translated with RES PUBLICA). The unjust wealth that brings with it the peasants’ revolts in Germany and the sad Cathar heresy that led to the crusade against the Albigenses, Hus, Dolcino and then to the annihilation of the reforms of Luther and Calvin that in the end incline the balance in favour of the royal cooperated absolutism from the first estate, the blood aristocracy which, by cancelling the ecclesiastical benefits, eliminates the system of mutual benefit society existing around the great monasteries founded by Benedict and Francis, with the invaluable help of the Irish monks and so well described in the apologue of the “Foundation Cycle” by Isaac Asimov, also cancelling the instances grown in the environment of the interculturalism that survived the fall of the Arab-Normand-Germanic kingdom and the reconquest that took place in Spain, inter alia Maimonides, Averroes, Joachim of Fiore, Tommaso Campanella and Francesco di Paola.

Pius VII, finally on his way back to Rome, at Cuneo, in the Maritime Alps – Albigensian territory – when he turns to bless identifies the presence of a social issue, which the Catholic Church will have to face and which will start to be identified a few decades later, with the Rerum “Novarum.”

Meanwhile, “The Civil War in France”, “The Communist Manifesto” and the wonderful “The Capital” are written, while the first mutual societies and the earliest forms of rural banks that will evolve in cooperative societies in the Netherlands, in France, in the Germanic Kingdoms, in the Hapsburg Empire, in Transylvania, in the Kingdom of Sardinia and, why not, in the communist communities of the Kingdom of Naples.

But behind the movement that will inspire the Catholic social doctrine there is also the adventurous communist experience of the Jesuits in Guadeloupe and in the “Misione” in the Latin America of the Guarani, ended with the military defeat and the dissolution of the Congregation itself, requested by the Marquis of Pombal, of whom speaks poor Aramis in The Three Musketeers by Dumas.

The experience of the rural banks and of the Fabianism will be very incisive: in fact, even today Grameen Bank means “rural bank”.

The liberation of the energies, at the Second Vatican Council, in Catholicism leads straight to the liberation theology, “Hic et Nunc” of the brother “I kill you because I love you”, liberation of the transnationals and patents and of those new forms that the first State assumes, that is pure capitalism combined with the neo-colonialism, which is matched in the Islamic world by Nasser’s socialist model that leads to the birth of the apparently secular experiences, in Libya, Egypt, Iraq and Syria, then tragically concluded by the so-called “springs” .

Meanwhile, on the basis of the issue brought forward by Yunus, in relation to the “Millennium Goals” program of Kofi Annan arises the Tunisian microcredit, the Libyan one, the Japanese one, carried out, among others, by “Jica Research Institute”.

In the meantime, the Polish bishops’ conference resolves by means of new forms of associative aggregation the problem of the unsold stock of the Polish peasants and while the Salesian Congregation expelled, because of their involvement in the liberation theology, Don Lutte and Don Gutierrez, strongly stimulated by Don Gemmellaro, Don Toso, Don Bertone, bring new connexions and cattle breeding methods in Brazil and oil mills for the processing of agricultural products in Lebanon and Palestine and while UNESCO and Father Pittau together with President Ben Ali give life to the microcredit in Tunisia, to the mining tourism and to the economic use of the mountain olive and to the Faculty of Agriculture in Bongor in Tchad, in Vietnam, in Sardinia and in Honduras.

Now, while in Arabia the repopulation of the countryside by means of specific programs is stimulated, here the exercise credit in agriculture remains unfortunately very much less active, the related insurance “fata” and the agrarian bill that ware accompanying tax benefits. Meanwhile, however, the concept of unjust wealth is reflected and applied in the anti-money laundering and anti-bribery legislation. But wealth islegitimate when it is the result of activities, even purely speculative, as the portfolio investments, provided that the taxes on the transactions made are promptly paid.

It should be noted how the guidelines provided by the words of Emmanuel, placeable in the traditions of the sons of Israel as a property that was leased, but once the stipulated time had passed, had to go back to the community, permeate the Islamic Sharia, which does not prohibit trade and the accumulation of wealth, that, however, is not a purpose in itself, since after paying the taxes, the rest should be shared with the community, in order to grow together. According to the human specificity: quality of life and therefore joy of living.

The fight against money laundering implied by the action of the OECD and of the United Nations impregnates the Millennium Declaration, in particular the IIIrd session, entitled “Development and poverty eradication”, which puts the emphasis on solidarity as fundamental and universal value that should inspire the international relations in the twenty-first century. As a result, it is according to the model of microfinances directed to the people and not to the governments, as it happens, among other things, so very clearly in Africa by the Japanese institutions. Within the framework of the 57th session of the General Assembly of the United Nations has been adopted, on December 20, 2002, against the unjust wealth and in order to meet the dramatic conditions in which almost half of the population of the planet live, the Resolution A/RES/57/265, in which it was decided the effective and immediate set-up of the World Solidarity Fund by defining its funding mechanisms. The Fund, which, given the crisis, is struggling for appropriate financial instruments, refers to the political need to develop even more the fund’s collaboration department, includingwith the private sector.

In fact, numerous initiatives developed also by NGOs and by the civil society in general also occur with gifts in kind (also intangible), contribution of technology skills and competences, participation of communities and individuals to the work, put to good use the skills and the different experiences in the development and promotion of the most disadvantaged communities.

Shema Yisrael, listen to the new symphony – The suffering of the innocents by Kiko Arguello – performed in Auschwitz-Birkenau and in Lublin.

Vincenzo Porcasi

(Translated by Iuliana Stefanut – Lawyer-linguist)


       –  Abbagnano N, Foriero G., Protagonisti e testi della filosofia, Paravia, Milano 2002

       – Abd al Wahhab Khallaf , Les fondements du droit Musulman, Editions Al Qalam , Paris,       1997

       – A cura di Beauge G.,  Le capitaux de l’Islam, Presse du CNRS, Paris, 1990

  • A cura di  Mantovani M. e Toso M., Paolo VI: Fede, Cultura , Università , L.A.S., Roma, 2003

  • A cura di Albini V. e Maltese E.V., Bisanzio nella Sua letteratura, Garzanti, Milano, 1984

  • A cura di  Morandi L., I Vangeli gnostici, di Tommaso, Maria, Verità, Filippo, Adelphi Edizioni, Milano 1993

  • A cura di  Nicolaci G., Samonà L., L’universale ermeneutica, Casa Editrice Tilgher, Genova, 2003

  • Alden C., China in Africa, London, New York, International African Institute, 2006

  • Anderson S., Cavanagh I., Top 200, the rise of corporate global power, Institute for policy studies, Washington DC, 2000

  • Brantigam D., The Dragon’s gift: the real story of China in Africa, Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2009

  • Brunori L., Pines M., “ the other side of the coin, psychological implication of microcredit, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, 2013

  • Conferenza Internazionale del Lavoro, ( 86° sessione), Dichiarazione dell’ILO sui principi e i diritti fondamentali nel Lavoro, Ginevra, 18 giugno 1988

  • de Tocqueville A., La democrazia in America, Cappelli Editore, Bologna 2001

  • Easton D., il sistema politico, edizioni di comunità, Milano 1963

  • Friedman M, capitalism and freedom, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1962

  • Frosini V., Jus solitudinis, Giuffrè, Milano, 1993

  • Galimberti U., I miti del nostro tempo, Feltrinelli Editore, Milano, 2003

  • Gemmellaro G., Crisi contemporanea e prospettiva umanistica e sociale cristiana, L.A.S., Roma, 1979

  • Giddens A., capitalismo e teoria sociale. Marx, Durkheim e Max Weber,  Mondatori, Milano, 1991

  • Impellizzeri V., omnia nobis est Christus, Il pozzo di Giacobbe, Trapani 2001

  • Jean-Didier V., biologia delle passioni, Einaudi , Torino, 1988

  • Marchese A., Emanuel Mounier fra pensiero e impegno, una filosofia a servizio della persona, a cura di Freni C., L.A.S. , Roma 2005

  • Martinelli A., economia e società , Marx, Weber, Schumpeter, Polanyi, Parsone e Smelser, Edizioni Comunità, Torino, 1999

  • Obaidullah M., Introduction to islamic microfinance, Ibf Net, New Delhi, 2008

  • ONU, Rapporto della Commissione Brundtland, Our Common future, Ginevra, 1987

  • Reale G., storia della filosofia greca e romana, vol.5, Tascabili Bompiani, Milano, 2004

  • Reich W., la funzione dell’orgasmo, il Saggiatore, Milano, 2000

  • Richardson F.L.W. Jr., Walker Ch. R., struttura organizzativa e relazioni industriali, Franco Angeli editore, Milano 1959

  • Ross A., diritto e giustizia, Giulio Einaudi Editore, Torino, 1965

  • Steiner G.A., business and society, Random House, New York, 1971

  • Stucka P. I., la funzione rivoluzionaria del diritto e dello stato ed altri scritti, Giulio Einaudi Editore, Torino, 1967

  • Waldrop M.M., complessità, Instar Libri, Torino,2002

  • Wilson R., islamic finance in Europe, European University Institute , Firenze, 2007

  • Zanotto P., cattolicesimo, protestantesimo e capitalismo, dottrina cristiana ed etica del lavoro, Rubbettino Editore, Soveria Mannelli, 2005